br In this study as it shown in
In this study, as it shown in Fig. 7, we developed LMNs that could significantly inhibit breast cancer cell growth through both photo-dynamic therapy and chemotherapy. The LMNs exhibited a high drug loading and encapsulation eﬃciency for both DOX and HMME. In vitro drug release studies have demonstrated the controlled release of DOX and HMME using LMNs. When irradiated with a static magnetic field, which induces the movement of the LMNs from the BC membrane to the
tumor tissues, the release of DOX and HMME from the LMNs is trig-gered. In addition, FA targeting of the tumors can be determined using cell surface receptor ligand binding. The BC/LMNs membrane acts as a plaster for the local treatment of breast tumors. The use of a targeted magnetic field and an irradiating laser in situ further enhanced the transdermal transmittance and targeted release of drugs to kill cancer
cells. However, the use of a BC membrane as a drug delivery trans-dermal plaster has rarely been reported in cancer treatment.
Bioapplications of magnetic nanoparticles have been extensively explored for several decades and currently extended to magnetic se-paration, delivery, and disease treatments or imaging . We devel-oped a drug-loaded superparamagnetic nanoparticle delivery method,
of which the M + L cooperated with BC/LMNs could be enhanced under an external magnetic field. It has been reported that the magnetic field can increase the concentration of free radicals and reduce con-stitutive DNA damage signaling by endogenous oxidants.
In the present study, the cellular uptake and tumor targeting of LMNs were studied on MCF7 breast cancer cell lines under the static magnetic field. LMNs exhibited higher levels of intracellular uptake in folate receptor-positive breast cancer GSK126 (MCF7 cells) at magnetic field sites when compared with the non-field and free DOX or HMME (Fig. 6B). The combination of a magnetic field and transdermal ad-ministration was eﬀective in the treatment of breast cancer [50-53].
Compared to other methods, phototherapy can selectively act on a target cancer with significant therapeutic eﬃcacy and reduced toxicity . The wavelength of He-Ne laser is 633 nm, which was the earliest for laser acupuncture in hospitals. Because of its divergence angle, only 5 milliradians, is small, and the highly concentrated energy makes its
penetration through the depth of the tissues. He-Ne laser with a power of 7 mW with a maximum penetration depth of more than 10 mm. According to the results in Fig. 5B and C, it was not observable to shrinkage the tumor. Heating properties of laser in in vivo studies were helpless for inhibition of breast tumor [54-56]. Reactive oxygen species is produced by the conversion of photosensitizers, leading to tumor cell death. In order to a method that selectively and eﬃciently induce the cancer cells apoptosis, an active targeting method is required. The strategy can adequately increase the ROS around or within the cancer tissues and precisely target for eﬃcient PDT [32,57]. When the laser is switched on, the HMME absorbs the laser energy and the drug produces ROS in or near the tumor. The magnetic and laser activatable target and release of the LMNs could be applied to produce the synergistic eﬀect of chemotherapy and PDT in treating superficial tumors like breast cancer.
Toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles are scarce. After intravenous administration of OA-coated magnetic nanoparticles, the results did not
Fig. 7. Schematic representation of mechanisms by which BC/LMNs can deliver HMME and DOX to breast tumor. BC/LMNs coencapsulated with chemotherapeutic drug (DOX) and photosensitizers HMME are shown as anti-cancer nanodrugs. Cancer tissue targeting is achieved by transdermal through external stamuli static magnetic field and laser. Active cellular targeting can be achieved by FA grafting on the surface of LMNs that promote cell-specific recognition and binding. The LMNs can reach breast tumor to ensure maximum therapeutic eﬀect and inducing the tumor to cell death.
show any damages in these organs such as heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney by hstological analysis [29,36]. However, the stratum corneum of the skin hindering transdermal drug delivery acts as a barrier. A static magnetic field from 0.5 to 2 T does not cause any known side eﬀects and the patient compliance is high. [27,52,53] Similarly, PDT is an attractive for cancer therapies because of its remote controllability, easy applicability, and low systemic toxicity and side eﬀects [32,57]. Meanwhile, localizing transdermal treatment allows for the avoidance of undesirable systemic eﬀects and can prevent pessimal stimulation and toxicity.